WASHINGTON — Is there hope on the horizon? Three drug companies have released positive results of their coronavirus vaccine trials.
In the coming weeks, we expect to see more results from other vaccine candidates in development.
What are the vaccine types and how do they work?
There are three types of vaccines that are a top priority in the United States. Six different companies are working on them.
The six pharmaceutical companies and Johns Hopkins University Vaccines Expert, Dr. William Moss.
According to Dr. Moss, all of the vaccine types in development are relatively new in the vaccine world.
“All of these technologies have as their underlying basis inducing the immune response of the spike protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 [coronavirus],” Moss explained.
The first type is messenger RNA or mRNA vaccines. These vaccines inject the RNA genetic code of the coronavirus protein into your cells to activate an immune response. The two companies are Pfizer and Moderna.
Viral Vector Vaccines:
The second type is called viral vector vaccines. In these, researchers insert the genetic code of coronavirus protein into another inactivated virus,. then use that virus to deliver the genetic code to the body. It then activates the body’s immune response. The companies doing this are AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson.
Recombinant Protein Vaccines:
The final type of vaccine is called a recombinant protein vaccine. Instead of injecting genetic code to create the coronavirus protein, these vaccines inject the spike protein of coronavirus to create the immune response. The two companies working on these are Novavax and a partnership between Sanofi and GSK.
An important note, all three of these types of vaccines are relatively new. The type of vaccine used in polio or measles inoculation is to inject the inactive virus itself into the person. This type of vaccine is what the Chinese government is looking at, according to Dr. Moss.